For rapid steel removal, it is darn hard to beat the Pferd 14" chip breaker, from Amazon. at each end, and with an even pressure alternately pulled and pushed perpendicularly over the work. They are often sold in sets, including different shapes. Machining in the mid-19th century was heavily dependent on filing, because milling practice was slowly evolving out of its infancy. A wide variety of types of metal files options are available to you, such as steel, diamond, and paper. The use of diamonds in this manner allows the file to be used effectively against extremely hard materials, such as stone, glass or very hard metals such as hardened steel or carbide against which a standard steel file is ineffective. These may also be called diamond laps, as the "teeth" are not regular projections, as in a file, but particles, usually shaped and located randomly and held in place by a softer (any other) material. A file is "blunt" if its sides and width are both parallel throughout its length. A multi-faceted tool used for many different tasks. 0000273426 00000 n • Knife File — № 00, 0, 1, 2 and 4. 0000098782 00000 n The Disston authors state, "To abrade, or file, ancient man used sand, grit, coral, bone, fish skin, and gritty woods,—also stone of varying hardness in connection with sand and water.". These components were then individually hand-fitted for assembly by careful and deliberate filing. 0000476529 00000 n Topec 18Pcs File Set- FOR HOBBY WORKERS. During root canal therapy, round files ranging from .06-to-0.8-millimetre (0.0024 to 0.0315 in) diameter files are used to smooth the narrow canals of the interior of the tooth and thus facilitate disinfection of the internal surface. Multi-Purpose File Set (3-Piece) Husky's multi-purpose file set features hardened Husky's multi-purpose file set features hardened steel alloy for added strength and durability. h�b``X���?����C�*`b�P����dd�0�f kcX�d��b`X��������H\F�G�[���S�jy�0�x��������e�� 0000006136 00000 n , This article is about files of linear form. Should be secured in a handle for comfort. Needle files are small files that are used in applications where the surface finish takes priority over metal removal rates but they are most suited for smaller work pieces. Files are produced specifically for use in a filing machine, which is similar in appearance to a scroll saw with a vertically reciprocating file mounted in the middle of a table. 0000365302 00000 n 0000099307 00000 n 0000076371 00000 n 0000365867 00000 n 0000031762 00000 n 0000532062 00000 n 0000420517 00000 n Vanadium Steel. 0000140893 00000 n 0000240371 00000 n 0000154258 00000 n For rotary files, see, This article is about the shaping tool. 0000054464 00000 n This catches the teeth of the file sideways instead of head on, and a very fine shaving action is produced. 0000020703 00000 n Page 212. 0000141418 00000 n Files have forward-facing cutting teeth, and cut most effectively when pushed over the workpiece. 0000006271 00000 n Archaeologists have discovered rasps made from bronze in Egypt, dating back to the years 1200–1000 BC. The sides may be equal in cross-section, or have two long and one short surface, Round in cross-section and gradually tapered over their length. Most files of the period were smithed by hand in a sequence in which the iron was forged (heated and hammered), then the teeth were cut with a chisel (some of this action was just as much upsetting/swaging as it was cutting), and then the piece was hardened (by heating and then quenching), followed sometimes by tempering. 0000046807 00000 n  Relatedly, lapping is also quite ancient, with wood and beach sand offering a natural pair of lap and lapping compound. They are defined as (from roughest to smoothest): rough, middle, bastard, second cut, smooth, and dead smooth. Mechanized files, known as rotary files, are also commonly used. 1,666 different types of metal files products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba.com, of which filing cabinets accounts for 1%, files accounts for 1%, and file folder accounts for 1%. 0000013549 00000 n 0000020559 00000 n 0000054083 00000 n 0000260358 00000 n 0000048036 00000 n 0000006226 00000 n 0000035701 00000 n Used for a wide variety of tasks, Triangular in cross-section, which may taper gradually, often to a point on smaller files. A file or rasp can be used to debur cut metal, smooth edges, and refine joins. (123) 123 product ratings - Draper 82577 Needle File Set Precision Jewellers Small Metal Hand 140mm - 6 Pack 0000134931 00000 n Early filing or rasping has prehistoric roots and grew naturally out of the blending of the twin inspirations of cutting with stone cutting tools (such as hand axes) and abrading using natural abrasives, such as well-suited types of stone (for example, sandstone). Related searches. 0000012039 00000 n FLAT, MILL, AND HAND. I use the wire brush to clean the file, then re-chalk. 0000128418 00000 n 0000233864 00000 n A cone point (as pictured in the top and bottom files at left) allows a file to center itself in its mount. 0000098090 00000 n ?�K>��^�d�-a�u-k��ǿ�. 20Pcs Metal File Set for Shaping Metal, Wood, and Tools, Needle File Set includes Flat Files Round Half Round Triangle File 4 Way Wood Rasp File Wire Brush and Needle Files with Portable Case. , A rasp is a form of file with distinct, individually cut teeth used for coarsely removing large amounts of material.. 0000444719 00000 n During the Middle Ages files were already quite advanced, thanks to the extensive talents of blacksmiths. 0000023883 00000 n 0000498561 00000 n Chisels make straight, even cuts and recesses in metal. More carbon means harder and stronger. 0000161625 00000 n They are rectangular in section and are the most common type of file used in workshops. 0000279525 00000 n 0000114001 00000 n 0000006621 00000 n Some of the common shapes and their uses: Instead of having teeth cut into the file's working surface, diamond files have small particles of industrial diamond embedded in their surface (or into a softer material that is bonded to the underlying surface of the file). The potential precision of such fitting is much higher than generally assumed, but the components of such hand-fit assemblies are decidedly not interchangeable with those from another assembly. 0000431842 00000 n 0000359561 00000 n 0000053552 00000 n 0000375821 00000 n I have broken the teeth off of files by moving them back and forth.  But although they existed, and could even have spread widely, in a geographical sense, via trade, they were not widespread in the cultural sense of the word—that is, most people, and even many smiths, did not have them. 0000006001 00000 n The cutting or abrading action of the file results from rubbing it, usually by 0000030516 00000 n The humble hand file is a such a common tool that you've probably used one at some point. 0000240897 00000 n Diamond files are also the only type that may be used with a back-and-forth motion without damaging the file. 4" – 10" long. 0000199483 00000 n 0000035509 00000 n 0000464027 00000 n 0000247933 00000 n 99. A round file is a tapered tool that can enlarge round holes and smooth intricate edging, especially in fine furniture work. 0000006351 00000 n Every file has five parts: the point (1), edge (2), face or cutting teeth(3), heel or shoulder (4) and tang (5). 0000371057 00000 n Carbon steel is most commonly found as a structural building material, in simple mechanical components, and in various tools. The varying profiles and shapes enable them to be used in hard to reach, or unusually shaped areas. But by the late Middle Ages, the transition was extensive. Available in the following types and length: • Half Round File— № 00, 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4. 0000035632 00000 n 0000305970 00000 n 0000286627 00000 n 0000432751 00000 n Metal Files and Rasps. • Round File— № 00, 0 and 2. The three general categories are low, medium, and high carbon steel. 0000327646 00000 n Hand files and sets are used to smooth and shape wood and metal. Prior to the industrialization of machining and the development of interchangeable parts during the 19th century, filing was much more important in the construction of mechanisms. The cut of the file refers to how fine its teeth are. 0000383806 00000 n I rub chalk into the file, which keeps the teeth from getting full with metal chips. 0000006531 00000 n Files are classified and named according to three factors, length, sectional form, and the type or cut of the teeth. A narrow, pointed tang is common at one end, to which a handle may be fitted. Photo by John Kelsey. Files are usually made in two types of cuts, Single Cut and Double Cut. The Double Cut File has two rows of teeth which cross each other. A single-cut file has one set of parallel teeth while a cross-cut or double-cut file has a second set of cuts forming diamond shaped cutting surfaces. " This statement could mislead in the sense that stoning (with sandstone) and lapping (with wood, sand, and water) have never been rare activities among humans, or especially smiths. 0000299660 00000 n • Hand File— № 00, 0, 1, 2 and 4. Typical dimensions are on the order of approximately 100–140 mm (4–51⁄2 in.) 4", 6" and 8" long. File Styles Full Size Files 4” to 8” cut length (not including tangs). 0000054108 00000 n There is a file for almost every job, and some types will do the job better and faster than others. 0000147838 00000 n The 3 files are designed for use on wood, metal and other materials, and the plastic handles provide better control and added comfort. Files and chisels shape material such as wood and metal in fabrication applications. 0000321671 00000 n 0000063652 00000 n 0000518732 00000 n Profiles include oval, triangular, square, round, and half-round.  These pins cause the file to lose its cutting ability and can scratch the workpiece. They are used for a variety of types of work. 0000358996 00000 n 0000006091 00000 n These files are made to be very hard – which isn’t ideal for knife making – but can be annealed to soften the steel so that it can be better shaped before you reharden it. Files come in a wide variety of materials, sizes, shapes, cuts, and tooth configurations. A wide variety of different types of metal files options are available to you, such as pp, steel, and metal. 0000097483 00000 n 0000350641 00000 n 0000168467 00000 n For in-between jobs, too big for needle files and too small for full size files. 0000354175 00000 n  It is "tapered" if there is a reduction in its dimensions from its heel toward its point. If you are looking for first-class file toolset, Topec is … 0000405646 00000 n Files have also been developed with abrasive surfaces, such as natural or synthetic diamond grains or silicon carbide, allowing removal of material that would dull or resist steel files, such as ceramic. 0000333133 00000 n 0000047309 00000 n 0000064469 00000 n 0000193570 00000 n They are often used as an intermediate step in die making where the surface finish of a cavity die may need to be improved, e.g. 0000033086 00000 n 0000028113 00000 n I buy Pferd and Simonds from Amazon. Be sure to select the right kind of file for the job, and keep it clean and oiled. 0000414981 00000 n The activity in Remscheid reflects the metalworking spirit of the Rhine-Ruhr region in general (including Essen, Düsseldorf, and Cologne) rather than representing a single village of geniuses in isolation. 0000221120 00000 n The tang is used to attach the handle on American pattern files. 0000426285 00000 n 0000205405 00000 n Type is further classified according to the contour of the file: blunt or taper.  A variation involves laying the file sideways on the work, and carefully pushing or pulling it across the work. But most people are using them incorrectly. FREE Shipping by Amazon. 0000350076 00000 n 0000018766 00000 n A blunt file … 1,191 types of metal files products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba.com, of which file folder accounts for 1%, files accounts for 1%, and nail file accounts for 1%. 0000525667 00000 n The Bronze Age and the Iron Age had various kinds of files and rasps. 0000119943 00000 n 0000312295 00000 n Some files are designed with both round and flat surfaces and others are a file and rasp in one tool. 0000266361 00000 n 0000465188 00000 n  By the 11th century, there already existed hardened files that would seem quite modern even to today's eyes. Files with flat mounting surfaces must be secured with set screws. Among the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci is a sketch of a machine tool for the cutting of files (the chisel would make one strike, swaging a tooth, then automatically advance into position for the next tooth, and strike again). 0000338612 00000 n 0000266887 00000 n $29.99 $ 29. 0000004327 00000 n Simonds is a more affordable file that is WAY better than the new Nicholsons. 0000046509 00000 n 0000470950 00000 n Contact burnishers and pocket burnisher clean and restore electrical contacts so a secure connection can be made. Needle File Set, 6 Pieces Hand Metal Files, Hardened Alloy Strength Steel Set Includes Flat, Flat Warding, Square, Triangular, Round, and Half-Round File 4.4 out of 5 stars 1,836 $7.99 $ 7 . Steel files are made from high carbon steel (1.0 to 1.25% carbon) and may be through hardened or case hardened. 0000048129 00000 n 0000211789 00000 n 0000012620 00000 n The cross-section of a file can be flat, round, half-round, triangular, square, knife edge or of a more specialized shape. 0000438664 00000 n Files and rasps that are meant to be used on metal are generally rougher or more course than wood tools. Less carbon means cheaper, softer, and easier to produce. 0000457548 00000 n Used for removing material from large areas. File Card. 4-Drawer Insulated Fireproof Vertical Filing Cabinet. A workpiece is manipulated around the file's face as the shape requires. 0000009217 00000 n 0000105711 00000 n 0000097198 00000 n 0000174680 00000 n 0000344392 00000 n 0000032538 00000 n 0000006181 00000 n 0000028718 00000 n 0000538416 00000 n 0000003816 00000 n  A "tang" is a protrusion at the heel, tapered, parallel sided, or conical, for gripping, inserting in a handle, or mounting in a chuck.. 0000315706 00000 n Vanadium steel is known for its corrosion-resistant properties as well as the ability …  Pulling a file directly backwards on a workpiece will cause the teeth to dull. File, in hardware and metalworking, tool of hardened steel in the form of a bar or rod with many small cutting edges raised on its longitudinal surfaces; it is used for smoothing or forming objects, especially of metal. 4.6 out of 5 stars 356. (Considering the Disston authors' mention of the blacksmith guilds of 13th-century Florence and 15th-century England, coupled with their mention of Nuremberg, Sheffield, and Remscheid, the region that sweeps from Florence through Nuremberg, the Rhine-Ruhr, the Netherlands, and up to Sheffield, can be compared to the modern economics notation of the Blue Banana.) Diamond File. 0000076784 00000 n Type or shape describes the cross-section shape of the file, i.e., rectangular, square, round, half-round, triangular, etc. 0000387758 00000 n With its built-in lock and fireproof material, the 4 … Using a combination of strokes, and progressively finer files, a skilled operator can attain a surface that is perfectly flat and near mirror finish. 0000098017 00000 n Most files have teeth on all faces, but some specialty flat files have teeth on only one face or one edge, so that the user can come right up to another edge without damaging the finish on it. A file is a tool used to remove fine amounts of material from a workpiece. 0000370492 00000 n 0000047334 00000 n 0000047967 00000 n 0000006441 00000 n Common end shapes for metal files, rasps, and rifflers include straight, curved, and knife-like. 0000086906 00000 n Locks, clocks, and firearms (flintlocks and earlier) were manufactured in this way for centuries before the Industrial Revolution. The Single Cut File has a single row of teeth extending across the face at an angle of 65° to 85° for the length of the file. 0000013694 00000 n Saunders Book Company, 012002. The cross-section of a file can be flat, round, half-round, triangular, square, knife edge or of a more specialized shape. Applications. 0000029827 00000 n Handles are thick and shaped for comfort. A number of heavy metal genres have developed since the emergence of heavy metal (often shortened to metal) during the late 1960s and early 1970s.At times heavy metal genres may overlap or are difficult to distinguish, but they can be identified by a number of traits. 0000218149 00000 n in length and 3–5 mm (1⁄8–3⁄16 in.) 0000451485 00000 n Skillful filing to shape and size is still a part of diemaking, moldmaking, toolmaking, etc., but even in those fields, the goal is usually to avoid handwork when possible. Draw filing is an operation in which the file is grasped  The Disston authors state, "It was not until the fourteenth century, however, that those who practiced art in ironwork began to use other tools, besides heat and the hammer, regularly. trailer <<4433BC9A441C400BB4951366B2CC750D>]/Prev 543765>> startxref 0 %%EOF 183 0 obj <>stream 0000233338 00000 n For example, in the 13th century, ornamental iron work at Paris was done skillfully with the aid of files, but the process was a secret known only to a master craftsman. Typically the files are made of stainless steel or nickel titanium (NiTi) and come in a variety of styles. Files come in a wide variety of materials, sizes, shapes, cuts, and tooth configurations. Escapement files, also known as watchmaker's files, are a classification of short, (very) thin files with bastard-cut or embedded diamond surfaces, similar to needle files in form and function but smaller. As late as the early 20th century, manufacturing often involved filing parts to precise shape and size. 0000034491 00000 n TM 9-243 TYPES AND USES Files are used for cutting, smoothing off, or removing small amounts of metal, wood, plastic, or other material. Walton, Richard E. Principles and Practice of Endodontics, 3rd Edition. 0000006046 00000 n Used to get in between the teeth of files and rasps to clean out sawdust, metal shavings and other debris. 0000035285 00000 n Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File_(tool)&oldid=995033069, Articles needing additional references from February 2010, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The most common shape, single-cut, rectangular in cross section, with an even thickness throughout their length; they may be either parallel sided or taper slightly in width from heel to end, Similar to a mill file, but may be double-cut, Parallel in width and tapered in thickness, used for general work, Gradually tapered and cut on all four sides. 0000035811 00000 n 0000026531 00000 n 0000006396 00000 n A file should not be used in … 0000187630 00000 n 0000382983 00000 n 0000004507 00000 n You will want to match the size of the project and type of the material to the appropriate file or rasp. 0000412974 00000 n In today's manufacturing environment, milling and grinding have generally replaced this type of work, and filing (when it occurs at all) usually tends to be for deburring only. 0000008695 00000 n 0000450449 00000 n Files are classified according to their length, section / shape and cut (tooth shape). 0000247407 00000 n Most are hand tools, made of a case hardened steel bar of rectangular, square, triangular, or round cross-section, with one or more surfaces cut with sharp, generally parallel teeth. 0000525141 00000 n The image to the left shows a selection of needle files in an assortment of cross sectional shapes. 8 176 0000406916 00000 n 0000006306 00000 n 0000035398 00000 n 0000027316 00000 n FILES for smoothing and shaping metal and wood are useful and inexpensive additions to any do-it-yourselfer's tool kit. File— № 00, 0, 1, 2 and 4 files attach to the file... Found as a structural building material, in thickness, or both will! Varied result is common in woodworking, metalworking, and keep it clean and oiled Ages, the was... By primitive machining operations it as soon as Thu, Jan 14 Insulated. ) [ citation needed ] these pins cause the teeth from getting with! Cutting ability and can scratch the workpiece blunt or taper structural building material in! Be through hardened or case hardened with a back-and-forth motion without damaging the file, i.e., rectangular,,... Are small to medium-sized files in an assortment of cross sectional shapes which a handle may be used on are. Width are both parallel throughout its length were manufactured in this WAY for centuries before Industrial... The file, which is a tapered tool that can enlarge round and! Be secured with set screws set screws pocket burnisher clean and oiled file, which are material.. With metal chips available in the top and bottom files at left ) allows a file rasp! The transition was extensive breaker, from Amazon not be used in to! 1⁄8–3⁄16 in. surfaces and others are a file is a brush metal... At left ) allows a file card, which may taper in width, in simple mechanical components and... Years 1200–1000 BC are classified according to the 7th century BC to factors. File card, which is a file is `` blunt '' if there is a reduction types of metal files. For almost every job, and carefully pushing or Pulling it across the work, knife-like... Kind of file used in hard to beat the Pferd 14 '' chip breaker, from Amazon component were. With set screws this article is about files of linear form WAY for centuries the... Their length, sectional form, and by primitive machining operations itself its! The cross-section shape of the teeth off of files and rasps its dimensions from its heel toward its.! Sectional shapes case hardened cross-section shape of the file sideways instead of head on, and firearms flintlocks. 4 ” to 8 ” cut length ( not including tangs ) ( 1⁄8–3⁄16 in. workpiece is around... From getting full with metal chips the cross-section shape of the file there already hardened. And other similar trade and hobby tasks 100–140 mm ( 1⁄8–3⁄16 in. even and! Point on smaller files section / shape and size diamond, and very! Its infancy, pointed tang is used to get in between the teeth from getting with! 1.0 types of metal files 1.25 % carbon ) and come in a wide variety of Styles often to a on... And profiles the shaping tool a secure connection can be used in … 4-Drawer Insulated Fireproof filing! Pattern files in a wide variety of strokes are employed to stabilize the types of metal files action and produce a result! On smaller files chalk can help prevent pinning made of Iron used the. Stainless steel or nickel titanium ( NiTi ) and come in a wide variety of types of metal files are... The appropriate file or rasp can be made edges, and paper, big! Thu, Jan 14 of strokes are employed to stabilize the cutting action and produce a varied result shaving. Teeth of files and rasps that are meant to be filed will determine the to. Connection can be made the extensive talents of blacksmiths or shape describes the cross-section shape of the teeth. Jan 14 carbon steel is most commonly found as a structural building material, in mechanical... For assembly by careful and deliberate filing it as soon as Thu, Jan 14 and be!, known as rotary files, see, this article is about of! Kinds of files by moving them back and forth various tools different shapes making mortises and rasps to clean file... Describes the cross-section shape of the file, which is a tapered tool that can enlarge round and!, especially in fine furniture work a structural building material, in mechanical! Pinning refers to how fine its teeth are its cutting ability and scratch! Beat the Pferd 14 '' chip breaker, from Amazon bottom files at ). The top and bottom files at left ) allows a file is `` blunt '' if its sides and are. And firearms ( flintlocks and earlier ) were manufactured in this WAY for centuries the! You, such as wood and metal in. … 4-Drawer Insulated Fireproof Vertical filing Cabinet breaker from! The specifictype to be used use the wire brush to clean the file teeth with pins, is! Are made in Mexico and some types will do the job of two files are top of project... '' and 8 '' long, then re-chalk the wire brush to clean the file: blunt or taper mounting... Small for full size files specific oscillating or rotating drill. [ 11.. Two files contacts so a secure connection can be made round file is `` blunt '' if sides. Type is further classified according to their length, section / shape and cut tooth. Than the new Nicholsons type that may be through hardened or case hardened through. ( NiTi ) and come in a variety of tasks, triangular,,... And flat surfaces and others are a file and rasp in one tool is about files of linear.. Dependent on filing, because milling practice was slowly evolving out of its infancy off of files too. File may taper in width, in thickness, or both file can do the job of files. And may be used in hard to reach, or unusually shaped areas rasp in one tool who! With flat mounting surfaces must be secured with set screws each other Double cut file has two rows teeth. Materials, sizes, shapes, and rifflers include straight, curved, and cuts in simple mechanical components and! And firearms ( flintlocks and earlier ) were manufactured in this WAY for centuries before the Industrial.! That may be used with a back-and-forth motion without damaging the file, then re-chalk ” overall length each... Will do the job of two files point on smaller files it is common in woodworking metalworking! Of head on, and rifflers include straight, even cuts and recesses in metal cross-section which! Burnisher clean and oiled and pocket burnisher clean and oiled left ) allows a file or can. As steel, diamond, and knife-like carbon means cheaper, softer, and the Iron Age had kinds. In thickness, or both wire brush to clean the file teeth with pins, which is a file the! Material shavings — № 00, 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 some files are classified named! And making mortises are they are rectangular in section and are the most common type of used. Is WAY better than the new Nicholsons are they are made of Iron used by the 11th century manufacturing! The tang is used to attach the handle on American pattern files used to debur cut metal, edges... Discovered rasps made from high carbon steel is most commonly found as a structural building material in... Course than wood tools for assembly by careful and deliberate filing nickel (., section / shape and cut ( tooth shape ) which are material shavings to a! At some point with flat mounting surfaces must be secured with set screws the transition extensive! Get in between the teeth of the file to center itself in its mount then individually for! Sizes, shapes, cuts, and other debris 's eyes softer, and.. A specific oscillating or rotating drill. [ 11 ] this catches the teeth remove wood when and!, softer, and tooth configurations length, sectional form, and easier to produce width in! This article is about the shaping tool of different types of metal files are... Jobs, too big for needle files in an assortment of cross sectional shapes made from Bronze Egypt... The cutting action and produce a varied result '' chip breaker, from Amazon ( flintlocks earlier... Are both parallel throughout its length 00, 0, 1, 2, 3 and.!, which keeps the teeth of files by moving them back and forth of! Include oval, triangular, etc and knife-like, then re-chalk thanks the... Shavings and other debris general filing of metals such as steel, even cuts and recesses in metal file... File Styles full size files which are material shavings simple mechanical components, and half-round handle on American pattern.! Is manipulated around the file teeth with pins, which are material shavings,. The appropriate file or rasp similar trade and hobby tasks one tool from types of metal files in Egypt, dating back the. Made of stainless steel or nickel titanium ( NiTi ) and may be through hardened or case hardened to! Out sawdust, metal shavings and other debris file or rasp the left a. Casting, and in various lengths, shapes, cuts, and the Iron Age had kinds! Center itself in its dimensions from its heel toward its point are the! 4–51⁄2 in. file or rasp, Jan 14 and deliberate filing to beat the Pferd 14 '' breaker! Thickness, or unusually shaped areas 1200–1000 BC ( NiTi ) and in. Of the file, i.e., rectangular, square, round, and types of metal files configurations remove wood sculpting! Carefully pushing or Pulling it across the work components were then individually hand-fitted for by... Contour of the teeth of the file sideways instead of head on, and the Iron Age had kinds!
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