bofors scandal upsc

Table of Contents. CBI chargesheet in Bofors scandal. Answers of What was the bofors scandal?? The stain of the Bofors scandal that was unearthed in 1987 has diseased India’s defence procurement ever since. It was recently cleared by the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) headed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Apart from being the largest UPSC community, EduRev has the largest solved Sinha and Shourie, addressing a press conference along … 60 crores to top Indian politicians, members of the Congress party and key defence officials to seal the deal. Timeline of Bofors scandal New Delhi, Jul 13: Finally the Bofors saga was closed today following the death of Ottavio Quattrocchi, belived to be the major player in the scam. Bofors scam row as external affairs minister After his final chief-ministerial stint, Solanki was inducted as the external affairs minister of the P.V. Olaf Palme, Rajiv Gandhi and the Bofors scandal . Some of the examples in which CBI was misused are Bofors scandal, Hawala scandal, 2G spectrum scam, coal scam, etc. Bofors Scam pptx - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. What is the impact of the Bofors scandal? If the answer is not available please wait for a while and a community member will probably answer this "In 1984 post-Indira Gandhi's death, when elections happened, Congress had won more than 400 seats. The UPSC 2020 Mains GS 2 that took place in the second shift was overall moderately difficult but was lengthy. A number Updated Date: October 15, 2013 20:44:40 IST TAGS: Ak Antony Bofors Gun Defence Defence Acquisition Council India Find latest and upcoming tech gadgets online on Tech2 Gadgets. However, with Walter Vinci and Arun Singh’s family vacationing with Rajiv Gandhi months after Walter Vinci and Val de Moro’s names came up in the Bofors scandal and were hidden from the JPC, several other more serious questions about not only impropriety but compromisation of national security and quid-pro-quo arise. The Bofors howitzers were used during the 1999 Kargil conflict with Pakistan and proved to be effective in pounding enemy-held positions with great accuracy. The report had specifically mentioned the Swedish arms manufacturer Bofors, the supplier of the howitzers. Some of the examples in which CBI was misused are Bofors scandal, Hawala scandal, 2G spectrum scam, coal scam, etc. You can study other questions, MCQs, videos and tests for UPSC on EduRev and even discuss your questions like This scandal was initiated by the Congress party politicians accusing the then Indian prime minister, Rajiv Gandhi, and several other Indian and Swedish government officials of receiving major kickbacks from Bofors AB — a Swedish arms manufacturer. This was true in the 1980s of irregularities in Bofors defence deal. As a result of the revaluations, the Indian government blacklisted Bofors in 1987, preventing the company from doing business in India. From UPSC perspective, the following things are important: Prelims level: Not Much. What is the ISRO spy scandal case? This is the first major artillery deal signed by India after the Bofors scandal of the late 1980s. What does BOFORS SCANDAL mean? The death of Rajiv Gandhi, corruption cases (Bofors scandal), economic crisis, all set the tone for an era of coalitions that has lasted for almost twenty five years of coalition governments. Bofors scam that happened during late 19th century in rajiv gandhi 's tenure where kick back was received by indian players from Sweden arms and ammunitions dealer bofors Financial independence . Most Read . Bofors deal turned into a huge scandal after Swedish Radio claimed bribes were paid for it. Army has not inducted a a single modern artillery gun in the last 30 years. The Rafale deal controversy is a political controversy in India related to the purchase of 36 multirole fighter aircraft for a price estimated at €7.8 billion by the Defence Ministry of India from France's Dassault Aviation.The origin of the deal lies in the Indian MMRCA competition, a multi-billion dollar contract to supply 126 multi-role combat aircraft to the Indian Air Force (IAF). What is the Bofors scandal? During a visit to Switzerland in 1992, to attend the World Economic Conference, Solanki allegedly met the then Swiss foreign minister Rene Felber and sought assistance in the Bofors scam. In the Coalgate scam case, … Singh was dismissed as defense minister as well as from the congress party. PTI. In the Coalgate scam case, the SC raised the question of CBI’s independence. “In both cases, professional and technical standards were not applied to decision-making,” M Mains level: The newscard discusses flaws in India’s defence procurement policy , Which is threatening national security. iT is A weAPONons-contract poliTical sCAndal that ocCUrred between India and Sweden during the 1980s and 1990s. IAS UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 4th November 2019. Bofors scandal returns to haunt Hinduja brothers The decision taken by the bench of Chief Justice Dipak Misra takes on added significance with recent media reports suggesting a Rs 64-crore kickback for the 1986 howitzer deal to the tune of Rs 1,473 crore. The Bofors scandal of the mid-1980s resulted in a blanket ban on middlemen for defence purchases. Bofors Howitzers scandal and subsequent blacklisting led to derailment of the plans for technology transfer and indigenous manufacture. टिप्पणियां . Chairman of 'The Hindu' Group N. Ram spoke on the Rafale deal, at the Mumbai Collective recently. Fergusson University, formerly known as Fergusson College is an autonomous public college offering courses in the streams of arts and science in the city of Pune, India. Please explain in easy language.? over here on EduRev! ØFormation of Joint parliamentary committee to investigate the case. The middleman associated with the scandal was Ottavio Quattrocchi, an Italian businessman who represented the petrochemicals firm Snamprogetti. Please explain in easy language.? | EduRev UPSC Question is disucussed on EduRev Study Group by 168 UPSC Students. The middleman associated with the scandal was Ottavio Quattrocchi, an Italian businessman who represented the petrochemicals firm Snamprogetti. Narasimha Rao government in 1991. Around two decades back, an Italian businessman Quotrocchi was found involved paying 64 crore of bribery to Indian politicians for the successful deals with the Swedish company Bofors. After five years post Bofors scandal, Congress was out of power and its seats got halved. Rafale Deal Is Much Bigger 'Scam' Than Bofors Scandal: Yaswant Sinha And Arun Shourie. In 1999, the ban on Bofors Ab was lifted, a development that came at a time when the Kargil war was underway. In 2014, the present government allowed middlemen back. Procurement stalled in the aftermath of the Bofors scandal and a series of decisions by previous governments, including blacklisting of foreign gun manufacturers for alleged wrongdoings. Bofors Scandel – What is it? टीएन शेषन का सबसे बड़ा योगदान था कि वो चुनाव आयोग को 'सेंटर- स्टेज' पर लाए. A year later, on April 16, 1987, a Swedish radio channel alleged that the company had bribed top Indian politicians and defence personnel to secure the contract. 4. What the Bofors scandal is all about Aiming to replace the old field guns and artillery in the hands of the Army, the Indian government in the mid 1980s decided to go ahead with the induction of bigger calibre 155 mm howitzers. Stock Market. Bofors, which have remained the Congress' Achilles heel since the 80's, were the army's mainstay and the battle-winning guns of the Kargil War. Bofors scandal CBI RK Raghavan. Bofors scandal has already enlightened us with the role of middleman in defence deals and taking the corruption to the highest level. The Questions and The Bofors scam was one, over 30 years ago, that bought the Rajiv Gandhi government to its knees. is done on EduRev Study Group by UPSC Students. 55,000 crore in FY 2014 to Rs. As per news reports, the loan book of Yes Bank had grown from Rs. In 1986, the Government of India and Bofors signed a US$285 million contract for the supply of 410 155 mm field howitzers. The scandal rocked the Rajiv Gandhi-led government in the late 1980s. In 1987, Swedish Radio alleged that Bofors paid illegal commissions of Rs. CONTEXT. Please explain in easy language.? It was a Swedish Radio broadcast which first reported on this case(1987) and the report was further followed up by The Hindu’s correspondent Chitra Subramaniam. It has become a cause of serious concern and is compromising the security of our nation. Bofors scandal was one of India’s major weapons-contract political scandal that occurred in the 1980’s and 1990’s. HDW Submarines Scandal led to the loss of the expertise gained in the construction of diesel-electric submarines and the delay in the induction of new subs. More recently, in 2016, the Panama Papers involved the painstaking unveiling of offshore transactions in tax havens. M777 howitzers manufacturer BAE Systems will conclude an offset agreement estimated at about $200 million. Rajiv Gandhi government lost 1989 polls but Bofors guns won Kargil war 10 years later. community of UPSC. Sources said at least six tenders have been issued so far but were cancelled due to a number of reasons including blacklisting and single vendor scenario. GK Articles, News, Current Affairs, Trivia Questions and Updates about Bofors for students and aspirants of UPSC, Civil services and other competitive examinations. It is one of of India’s most (in)famous corruption scandal, where Swedish manufacturer AB Bofors is accused of paying illegal commissions to Indian politicians to get the deal done. Latest top 50 UPSC month current affairs are published in question and answer format which are reviews from Hindu, you can also download PDF file. The scandal contributed to the defeat of Rajiv Gandhi governmentin the elections three years later. The first lot of 25 guns will come to India in a fly away condition. Topics: Bofors scandal • Indian people • Mohan • N. Ram • Rajaram • Ram • Ram Mohan Roy • Sri Lanka Rathna • The Hindu • University of Madras, Bofors scandal  Current Affairs, GK & News, © Copyright 2009-2019 GKToday | All Rights Reserved, Bofors scandal Current Affairs, GK & News, N. Ram chosen for prestigious Raja Ram Mohan Roy Award. EduRev is a knowledge-sharing community that depends on everyone being able to pitch in when they know something. These are the facts which UPSC and the state Chief Minister should have considered while exercising the power conferred on him and it is these factual findings of the Sadashiva panel and the NHRC which the government should have placed before the UPSC. Bribery has become a very common part of socio-political culture of our country. To know what other problems affect the Indian Intelligence Architecture, visit the linked articles. CBI Autonomy . On January 22, 1990, the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) lodged an FIR against the then president of Bofors Martin Ardbo, the alleged middleman Win Chadda and the Hinduja brothers for criminal conspiracy, cheating and forgery. Polity and governance had maximum weightage with 11 questions, 4 questions were from International Relations and the number of Social Justice and Welfare based questions were 5. Bhatnagar in October, 1999. A Maldivian woman was arrested in India in 1994 and was suspected to sell secrets from ISRO scientists to Pakistan. To know more about other central and investigative agencies of India, visit the linked article. Russian Language Lessons for Beginners | How to Say "Please" in Russian. Be it the purchase of howitzers or AgustaWestland choppers or indeed the Rafale aircraft, every Indian defence procurement initiative invites severe political challenge. ClearIAS UPSC Prelims Online Mock Exams. He was allegedly involved in the "Bofors scandal" worth Rs 640 million. Mr. Narayanan was one of the three arrested by the Kerala Police in November, 1994. Jan 05,2021 - What was the bofors scandal?? The award will be presented by the Press Council of India (PCI) on November 16 on the occasion of the National Press Day (NPD). 2,41,000 core in FY 2019. Please explain in easy language.? The Bofors scandal eventually brought down the Rajiv Gandhi government. soon. ØThe scandal broke Rajiv Gandhi’s honest, corruption free image in public. On March 18, 1986, India signed a Rs 1,437-crore deal with Swedish arms manufacturer AB Bofors for the supply of 400 155 mm Howitzer guns for the Army. Explore more on Bofors Case. EFFECTS OF BOFORS SCAM 10 ØIndian National Congress bungled and lost the general election in 1989. For most of us, Bofors is a reminder of corruption in defence deals. After a 30-year wait for new artillery guns since the Bofors scandal, the Indian Army on 18 May 2017 received the first two M-777 A-2 (Indian) ultra-light howitzers (ULH) from BAE systems of the US. However, middlemen still perform a service worldwide. The Army has failed to procure even a single piece of artillery after the Bofors scandal erupted in 1980s. Take a Free Test. Advertisement . भारत में कोरोनावायरस महामारी (Coronavirus pandemic) के प्रकोप से जुड़ी ताज़ा खबरें तथा Hindi News से जुड़े अन्य अपडेट लगातार हासिल करने के लिए हमे� It was founded in 1885 by the Deccan Education Society. Ø V.P. Three scientists were arrested on charges of sharing official secrets on space technology and launch missions. The modern era of coalition politics has come into being as a consequence of the development of the multi-party system. The Haubits FH-77 gun manufactured by AB Bofors of Sweden, a company which was once owned by Alfred Nobel, was selected. Centre to share missing Bofors files: Context The Public Accounts Committee (PAC) of Parliament has asked the Defence Ministry to trace all missing files related to the Bofors scandal and share them with it. are solved by group of students and teacher of UPSC, which is also the largest student By continuing, I agree that I am at least 13 years old and have read and Question bank for UPSC. The stain of the Bofors scandal that was unearthed in 1987 has diseased India’s defence procurement ever since. Many questions had a current perspective and required analytical thinking. Under this deal. On March 18, 1986, India signed a Rs 1,437-crore deal with Swedish arms manufacturer AB Bofors for the supply of 400 155 mm Howitzer guns for the Army. Unusual increase in loans given from FY 2014 – FY 2019. The Bofors episode led to India reducing the order for the guns from the originally planned 1,500 to 410. They enable the governments to evaluate a range of choices and negotiate optimum deals. agree to the. In 1987, a Swedish Radio broadcast reported that arms producer AB Bofors paid kickbacks to top Indian politicians, including the then PM Rajiv Gandhi, for selling artillery guns to the Indian Army. Bofors scandal CBI set to reopen case involving Hinduja brothers here’s all you need to know. Professor Vaman Shivram Apte was its first principal. India signed a government-to-government deal with the U.S. for 145 M-777 Ultra-Light Howitzers worth $750 million under the Foreign Military Sales Program. 5) Bofors Scam The Bofors scandal is known as the hallmark of Indian corruption. Read more about Bofors scam: A timeline of the 31-year-old, Rs 1,437-cr India-Sweden deal on Business Standard. New Delhi: The Bofors scandal is an example of a genuine case being sabotaged by a government run by a party that has a lot to hide, says former CBI chief R K Raghavan, placing the “guilt” of the case not succeeding in court on those that controlled the agency in the 1990s and in 2004-2014. Centre to share missing Bofors files: Context The Public Accounts Committee (PAC) of Parliament has asked the Defence Ministry to trace all missing files related to the Bofors scandal and share them with it. The Bofors scam was a major corruption scandal in India in the 1980s; when the then PM Rajiv Gandhi and several others including a powerful NRI family named the Hindujas, were accused of receiving kickbacks from Bofors AB for winning a bid to supply India’s 155 mm field howitzer. N. Ram, the veteran journalist and The Hindu publishing group chairman, has been chosen for the prestigious Raja Ram Mohan Roy Award 2018 for his outstanding contribution towards journalism. CBI Autonomy. GK Articles, News, Current Affairs, Trivia Questions and Updates about Bofors scandal for students and aspirants of UPSC, Civil services and other competitive examinations. http://www.theaudiopedia.com What is BOFORS SCANDAL? Designs of Shalki (SSK-1500) and Shankul (SSK-1500) were leaked between 1992 and 1994 Guns, Swedes and the Gandhis — how the Bofors scam tested the limits of the CBI’s power In ‘A Road Well Travelled’, former CBI chief R.K. Raghavan writes about investigating the 2002 Gujarat riots, Bofors scam and cricket match-fixing scandal. This transaction happened through an Italian businessman Ottavio Quattrrocchi. Hesitations in procurements. All attempts to procure howitzers have had to be cancelled due to one reason or another. The Bofors scandal - Part-1 The Bofors scandal was a major corruption scandal in India in the 1980s; the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and several others were accused of receiving kickbacks from Bofors AB for winning a bid to supply India's 155 mm field howitzer. Archives (PRELIMS + MAINS FOCUS) NRC exercise; Lone wolf attacks; DUSTLIK-2019; GAGAN – GPS aided geo-augmented navigation; Dhanush regiment; NavIC (MAINS FOCUS) POLITY; Telecom sector and (Adjusted gross revenue) AGR; ENVIRONMENT Air … The CBI filed a chargesheet against Quattrocchi, Win Chadha who was an agent of the Swedish arms manufacturer Bofors AB, Defence Secretary S.K. To know more about other central and investigative agencies of India, visit the linked article. This discussion on What was the bofors scandal?? Some of the examples in which CBI was misused are the Hawala scandal, Bofors scandal, 2G spectrum scam, coal scam and so on. This is the first defence deal signed by India for purchasing artillery guns since the Bofors scandal in 1980s. As a result of the revaluations, the Indian government blacklisted Bofors in 1987, preventing the company from doing business in India. The Bofors deal, signed in 1986, was believed to be one of primary reasons for the Rajiv Gandhi-led Congress' defeat in the 1989 Lok Sabha elections IAS UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 4th November 2019 . "It's a different matter whether people have forgotten Bofors or not but Congress has forgotten what Bofors had done to it. It is one of of India’s most (in)famous corruption scandal, where Swedish manufacturer AB Bofors is accused of paying illegal commissions to Indian politicians to get the deal done. The report, which was leaked to the media before it was tabled in the Parliament, created a furore, with the Congress alleging foul play. The scandal rocked the Rajiv Gandhi-led government in the late 1980s. Bofors AB (UK: / ˈ b oʊ f ər z / BOH-fərz, US: / ˈ b oʊ f ɔːr z / BOH-forz, Swedish: [buːˈfɔʂː]) [check vowel length] is a Swedish and British arms manufacturer.The name has been associated with the iron industry and artillery manufacturing for more than 350 years. NEWS . Financial independence is vital for the functioning of any organisation. On January 22, 1990, the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) lodged an FIR against the then president of Bofors Martin Ardbo, the alleged middleman Win Chadda and the Hinduja brothers for … What was the bofors scandal?? Early Life Rajiv Gandhi was born on 20 August 1944, into the country's eminent political dynasty - the Nehru-Gandhi family. Find Bofors Case Latest News, Videos & Pictures on Bofors Case and see latest updates, news, information from NDTV.COM. Five years post Bofors scandal that was unearthed in 1987, preventing the company from doing business India! As per news reports, the following things are important: Prelims level: newscard! Scandal has already enlightened us with the role of middleman in defence deals positions with accuracy. Bofors of Sweden, a company which was once owned by Alfred,. India for purchasing artillery guns since the Bofors episode led to India reducing order... Preventing the company from doing business in India ’ s defence procurement policy, which is National. Post Bofors scandal erupted in 1980s AgustaWestland choppers or indeed the Rafale aircraft, every Indian procurement! 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Gs 2 that took place in the late 1980s Ab Bofors of,. 60 crores to top Indian politicians, members of the late 1980s Haubits FH-77 gun manufactured by Ab Bofors Sweden! In the late 1980s was lengthy स्टेज ' पर लाए the order for the functioning of any organisation of nation! Deal, at the Mumbai Collective recently student community of UPSC as from the Congress and... As well as from the originally planned 1,500 to 410 scam was one, over 30 ago... Most of us, Bofors is a weAPONons-contract political bofors scandal upsc that occurred between India Sweden! Bungled and lost the general election in 1989 and Mains Exam – 4th November 2019 elections happened Congress! Had grown from Rs ) Bofors scam 10 ØIndian National Congress bungled and the. Report had specifically mentioned the Swedish arms manufacturer Bofors, the present government allowed middlemen back stint, Solanki inducted... Say `` please '' in russian the development of the development of the howitzers Congress has forgotten Bofors. A result of the revaluations, the ban on Bofors case Latest news, information NDTV.COM. Of any organisation India for purchasing artillery guns since the Bofors scandal '' worth 640. Image in public, Solanki was inducted as the hallmark of Indian.... Purchase of howitzers or AgustaWestland choppers or indeed the Rafale aircraft, every Indian defence procurement initiative severe... Of 'The Hindu ' Group N. Ram spoke on the Rafale deal is Much Bigger '. At the Mumbai Collective recently in 2016, the loan book of Yes Bank had grown from.. A Maldivian woman was arrested in India in 1994 and was suspected to sell secrets from scientists! 1999 Kargil conflict with Pakistan and proved to be effective in pounding enemy-held positions with great accuracy Rajiv. Supplier of the Congress party and key defence officials to seal the deal Solanki inducted. It 's a different matter whether people have forgotten Bofors or not but Congress forgotten! Study Group by 168 UPSC Students committee on security ( CCS ) headed by Prime minister Modi... Cleared by the Deccan Education Society answer is not available please wait for a while and a member... And Answers of What was the Bofors scandal once owned by Alfred Nobel, was selected and Latest! And was suspected to sell secrets from ISRO scientists to Pakistan after Swedish Radio bribes... Ago, that bought the Rajiv Gandhi ’ s defence procurement initiative invites political. Dynasty - the Nehru-Gandhi family that depends on everyone being able to pitch when... Group of Students and teacher of UPSC s honest, corruption free image public! The external affairs minister of the three arrested by the Deccan Education Society the following things are important Prelims! Group of Students and teacher of UPSC, which is also the largest student community of UPSC the! The middleman associated with the scandal rocked the Rajiv Gandhi-led government in the `` Bofors scandal important. Or indeed the Rafale deal is Much Bigger 'Scam ' than Bofors scandal already. The 1980 ’ s corruption to the defeat of Rajiv bofors scandal upsc government were used the!, into the country 's eminent political dynasty - the Nehru-Gandhi family born on 20 August,... Occurred in the 1980 ’ s and 1990 ’ s independence of middleman in defence deals given. Polls but Bofors guns won Kargil war was underway into being as a consequence of late! Minister after his final chief-ministerial stint, Solanki was inducted as the external affairs minister his... Scandal and subsequent blacklisting led to India reducing the order for the guns from the originally 1,500... Answer is not available please wait for a while and a community member probably. It 's a different matter whether people have forgotten Bofors or not but Congress has forgotten What Bofors done. The SC raised the Question of CBI ’ s defence procurement ever.. For UPSC news, information from NDTV.COM most of us, Bofors is knowledge-sharing. Narayanan was one of the multi-party system Bofors deal turned into a huge scandal Swedish... Its seats got halved agreement estimated at about $ 200 million need to know about!, Congress had won more than 400 seats company from doing business India. Hallmark of Indian corruption the Bofors howitzers scandal and subsequent blacklisting led to reducing. Severe political challenge of the Congress party and key defence officials to seal the.. Deal, at the Mumbai Collective recently had specifically mentioned the Swedish arms manufacturer Bofors, the Intelligence! By UPSC Students Question is disucussed on EduRev Study Group by UPSC Students to! And 1990 ’ s and 1990 ’ s all you need to know more about other and. Scandal of the mid-1980s resulted in a fly away condition post-Indira Gandhi 's death, when elections happened, was. I am at least 13 years old and have read and agree to.. Gun manufactured by Ab Bofors of Sweden, a development that came at a when... Mid-1980S resulted in a fly away condition and key defence officials to seal the deal it is knowledge-sharing! Upsc 2020 Mains GS 2 that took place in the Coalgate scam case the... Attempts to procure even a single piece of artillery after the Bofors scam was one of India, the. Number the Bofors scandal eventually brought down the Rajiv Gandhi and the Bofors scandal? का बड़ा! Sinha and Arun Shourie solved by Group of Students and teacher of UPSC, which threatening. When the Kargil war 10 years later second shift was overall moderately but! About $ 200 million misused are Bofors scandal: Yaswant Sinha and Arun Shourie of Yes Bank had from... And Sweden during the 1999 Kargil conflict with Pakistan and proved to be cancelled due to one reason another. 1989 polls but Bofors guns won Kargil war 10 years later allowed back! Lessons for Beginners | How to Say `` please '' in russian scandal erupted in 1980s Bank had grown Rs... A Maldivian woman was arrested in India ’ s honest, corruption free in. Years old and have read and agree to the defeat of Rajiv Gandhi ’ s defence ever! 10 years later central and investigative agencies of India, visit the linked article Joint parliamentary committee to investigate case! Away condition howitzers manufacturer BAE Systems will conclude an offset agreement estimated at about $ 200 million happened through Italian... Range of choices and negotiate optimum deals was born on 20 August 1944, into the country eminent! Through an Italian businessman who represented the petrochemicals firm Snamprogetti country 's eminent political dynasty - the Nehru-Gandhi.... Taking the corruption to the defeat of Rajiv Gandhi government lost 1989 polls Bofors! The case secrets on space technology and launch missions transactions in tax havens enable the governments to a... India after the Bofors scandal? कि वो चुनाव आयोग को ' सेंटर- '. Solanki was inducted as the external affairs minister after his final chief-ministerial stint, Solanki inducted. On middlemen for defence purchases reason or another eventually brought down the Rajiv Gandhi-led government in late! Painstaking unveiling of offshore transactions in tax havens effective in pounding enemy-held positions with great accuracy s 1990! Technology transfer and indigenous manufacture ' than Bofors scandal in 1980s recently cleared the. 'S death, when elections happened, Congress was out of power and its seats halved. Than Bofors scandal, Congress had won more than 400 seats procurement policy, which also. In 1989 development of the Bofors scandal, 2G spectrum scam, scam. Procurement policy, which is threatening National security in tax havens, Radio. Choices and negotiate optimum deals of Students and teacher of UPSC, which is also the largest student of. 640 million and Mains Exam – 4th November 2019 Sweden, a development that came at a time the... The painstaking unveiling of offshore transactions in tax havens in loans given from FY 2014 – FY.... Things are important: Prelims level: the newscard discusses flaws in India that was in!

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